Athens Bibliography

Books:

Daniels, Maurice. Horace T. Ward: Desegregation of UGA, Civil Rights Jurisprudence, and Advocacy. Atlanta, GA: Clark Atlanta University Press, 2001.

In this biography, University of Georgia’s Dean of the School of Social Work, Dr. Maurice Daniels, pays homage to the life and achievements of unsung “foot soldier,” Horace T. Ward. Dr. Daniels traces the legal and political battles that plagued Ward on his journey from being UGA’s first (thwarted) African-American applicant to becoming the State of Georgia’s first African-American Federal Judge. Dr. Daniels’ research is thorough, borrowing from original archival and legislative documents. He also interviews many important figures of the fight to desegregate schools in Georgia, including NAACP and civil rights attorneys Constance Baker Motley and Donald Hollowell, and Georgia segregationist governor, Ernest Vandiver. This book is also the foundation for the documentary film, Foot Soldier for Equal Justice, which aired on Georgia Public Television in 2001. (See http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/research/films.html#justice for more information about this film, including a very detailed summary).

English, John W. & Rob Williams. When Men Were Boys: An Informal Portrait of Dean William Tate. Lakemont, GA: Copple House Books, 1984.

This biography explores the life and philosophy of UGA’s efficacious Dean of Men during the 1960s, William Tate. An entire chapter, “His Mettle” (p 168 – 196), is devoted to Dean Tate’s relatively sympathetic and egalitarian response to the University’s integration, and the public and professional criticisms he consequently received. The detailed discussions of Tate’s pedagogical and administrative ideals in the remaining chapters shed necessary light on a perspective not often discussed: that of University officials who were more concerned with maintaining a harmonious and reputable institution than with further fortifying the walls of racism. Dean Tate’s biography demonstrates that civil rights progress could be aided by those who did not necessarily consider themselves civil rights activists. 

Pratt, Robert A. We Shall Not Be Moved: The Desegregation of the University of Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2002.

Pratt expands on Calvin Trillin’s history of the desegregation of UGA (see Trillin below) by detailing the years preceding and following Holmes and Hunter’s matriculation at The University. He traces the NAACP’s early efforts at integrating schools throughout the South in the 1940s and 50s, focusing primarily on Horace Ward’s thwarted application to UGA’s Law School in 1950, an application process that began years of court battles and University stall tactics. In conjunction with Trillin’s account, Pratt’s history and insights will provide readers with a comprehensive portrait of many of the players and moments responsible in The University’s yet-ongoing efforts to have a truly integrated and color-blind campus. 

Shipp, William. Murder at Broad River Bridge: The Slaying of Lemuel Penn by Members of the Ku Klux Klan. Atlanta, Ga: Peachtree Press, 1981. 

Journalist Bill Shipp tells the tragic story of the murder of Army Colonel Lemuel Penn on the Broad River Bridge in July, 1964. Shipp details the climate of racial tensions in Athens during 1964, the events of the fateful night of Mr. Penn’s murder, the subsequent investigation, the trial of the Klan suspects, and the Federal Civil Suit brought against the murder suspects. Shipp’s writing is clear and compelling, and his research is impressively detailed. 

Trillin, Calvin. An Education in Georgia: Charlayne Hunter, Hamilton Holmes, and the Integration of the University of Georgia. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1963/1991.

Written by Time Magazine correspondent Calvin Trillin in the early 1960s, this book details Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes’s experiences as the first African-American students enrolled at UGA. Rather than limiting his discussion to the courtroom or to the first couple of weeks of classes of that 1961 year, Trillin follows Hunter and Holmes throughout their entire tenure. He takes us into the minds of the young students, follows them in their daily routines, speaks to their professors, and asks about their social lives. He also incorporates a discussion of the political climate of that era, interviewing prominent civil rights leaders in Atlanta, administrators at the University, and the oft-overlooked few African-American students who entered UGA a few shorts months after Hunter and Holmes, like UGA’s first African-American graduate, Mary Frances Early and first African-American male to reside in the dorms, Harold Black. The book is extremely accessible, engaging, and provides very valuable insights into the experiences of the daily, lived experiences of these ground-breaking students. 

Wexler, Laura. Fire in a Canebrake: The Last Mass Lynching in America. New York: Scribner, 2003.

This touted historical account records, in well-researched detail and novelistic form, the tragic events that conspired on the Moore’s Ford Bridge in Monroe, Georgia, near Athens. In July, 1946, four young African American friends, one of whom happened to a recent World War II veteran, were viciously murdered while driving through Madison. No suspects have yet been charged with the murder, but Wexler’s book takes us into the heart of a town and era in which such atrocities could occur and go unpunished.

See http://www.uga.edu/news/desegregation/in_print/index.html for annotations of the following books that discuss the desegregation of UGA:

Boney, F.N. A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Dyer, Jr., Thomas. The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History 1785-1985. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1985.

Gault-Hunter, Charlayne. In My Place. NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1992.

Henderson, Harold Paulk. Ernest Vandiver: Governor of Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Motley, Constance Baker. Equal Justice Under the Law. NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1998.

Journal Articles:

Cohen, Robert. "G-Men in Georgia: The FBI and the Segregationist Riot at the University of Georgia, 1961." Georgia Historical Quarterly 83 (Fall 1999): 508-38.

In this article, Dr. Cohen uses declassified (yet heavily censored and excised) FBI files to shed investigative light on the segregationist riots that occurred at UGA on the evening of January 11, 1961. These FBI files allow Dr. Cohen to broaden our understanding of the collusion between rioters and state political leaders and between rioters and the Ku Klux Klan. Dr. Cohen also discusses Athens’ reaction to the presence of FBI agents after the riots. 

Cohen, Robert. “‘Two, Four, Six, Eight, We Don’t Want to Integrate’: White Student Attitudes Toward the University of Georgia’s Desegregation.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 79.3 (Fall 1996): 616 – 645.

Cohen seeks to understand more fully “what desegregation meant on the campuses where it occurred” (621). He forms his argument around 35 essays written in a Calculus class by white UGA students only a few days after the January 11, 1961 evening riot. The students’ essays and Cohen’s commentary provide valuable interior perspectives on the educational system at that time, including its curricula, teacher-student interactions, and textbooks, and also help to contextualize the racist attitudes of students raised in a Jim Crow South. The article also demonstrates that even within a racist environment, some students could risk social ostracism and call for justice and integration.

Pratt, Robert A. “The Rhetoric of Hate: The Demosthenian Literary Society and its Opposition to the Desegregation of the University of Georgia, 1950-1964.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 90.2 (Summer 2006): 236 – 260.

Dr. Pratt discusses the University of Georgia’s literary and debate society, Demosthenian, and its stringent opposition to integration. Pratt follows Demosthenian’s meeting minutes from Horace Ward’s application to the University in 1950, through the 1961 integration, and finally Demosthenian’s nullified vote to integrate itself in 1964. The article elucidates the fact that racist fervor during the protracted process of school desegregation was not isolated to top-level political players and legislators. Instead, some of the most acerbic resistance to integration took place among community members and students who became increasingly segregationist as the country tried to become more egalitarian.

Newspaper Articles:

Dye, Thomas. “Punitive Action Would Mar Record at U. GA” & Vaughn, Glenn. “Who Calls the Shots in Chaos?” Athens Banner-Herald19 May 1968: 4.

Political Science Department Head and Professor, Dr. Thomas Dye, reads the April, 1968 sleep-in protests that took place in UGA’s Administration Building (see below: Fort in Atlanta Daily News articles) in the context of the national upsurge of student demonstrations, reasoning that students resort to such confrontational tactics when they feel their voices are unheard in the tangle of university bureaucracies. Dr. Dye’s opinions are compassionate towards both students and administrators, a stark contrast to the opinions expressed in the adjacent column by Daily World editor, Glenn Vaughn, who blames UGA’s April protests on the communist-infiltrated “pitiful little minority of fuzzy, way out college students” led by Students for a Democratic Society.

Ingle, Bob. “Campus Protests – Only a Beginning?” Athens Banner-Herald 14 April 1968: 1, 2.

Ingle offers insights into the motivation of April’s (1968) demonstrators and SDS president, David Simpson, including a brief history of students’ thwarted efforts to communicate with UGA President, Fred Davison. Ingle also discusses responses to the demonstrations, including sympathetic reaction from some UGA faculty and from the Campus Ministry Association. This editorial offers a unique perspective in that it positions the April demonstrations within a continuum of stunted interactions between students and Administration, rather than seeing the demonstration as an isolated incident.

Mickelbury, Penny. “Black Student Problems Tackled.” Athens Banner-Herald 9 Dec.1970: 1, 8.

In December 1970, the University hosts a four-day series of lectures, poetry readings, team-building activities and consciousness raising groups focused on the experiences of black students at the University. The conference, entitled, “Focus: Black, In-Service Education for Residence Staff,” seeks to educate residence hall staff with “the particular problems of the black student on campus.” Mr. Frank Wiley, among others, will read from his poetry. 

“Official Report Given on Disorder.” Athens Banner-Herald. 12 January 1961: 1.

This brief report provides a specific, hour-by-hour chronology of the events that took place on the evening of the campus riots (Wednesday January 11, 1961) protesting against integration at UGA. The report mentions the delayed and ineffectual response of the Georgia State Patrol.

Tilley, Ray. “Rally Seeks Action to Free US Hostages.” Athens Daily News/Banner-Herald 14 Nov. 1979: 1, 18.

Several hundred demonstrators gather on the UGA campus in reaction to the hostages held at the US embassy in Iran. The rally includes proponents and opponents of the Iranians and the Shah. Every Iranian student in the States at this time was ordered to report to Immigration and Naturalization Services to have their “credentials” inspected. The article is important for highlighting continued, post-1960s student actions at the University, and it serves as a timely reminder of how easily xenophobia and prejudice can emerge in times of national crisis.

Toon, John. “Black Students Protest.” Athens Banner-Herald 27 Feb.1974: 1, 7.

On Tuesday February 26, 1974, nearly 100 of the approximately 500 black students enrolled at UGA marched from the Russell dormitory to President Davison’s office. The leaders of the demonstration met with President Davison to ask that the University begin to actively recruit and support minority students, professors, and administrators. Some students conjectured that this march was spurred by “bum calls” during a basketball game between a black and white fraternity, but the demonstration leaders denied this claim. The day after this march, the Black Student Union, the body representing the black student body, convened a special session that was closed to journalists, non-BSU students, and administrators. The BSU did not provide any comment as to the reasons for or the items discussed in the meeting.

Bailey, Sharon. “Protestors Muster One Orange Tent.” Athens Daily News 1 June 1968: 1, 2

A group of UGA students erected a small protest tent and campsite in front of the Academic Building to protest the suspension, or “persecution,” of two University students and the trial of a third for participation in an April, 1968 sleep-in at the Academic Building. These April protestors were demanding equal rights for the University’s women. (See below: Fort, Bob. “500 Students Sleep-In for Rights.”)

Fort, Bob. “Fire Rules Wet Protestors.” Athens Daily News 12 April 1968: 11.

On the evening of April 12, the hundreds of students who had camped out in the Academic Building in protest of unequal rules for male and female students vacated the building so as to avoid arrest on fire hazard violations. This article specifies the students’ original demands, discusses the administrative reaction to the protests, and also introduces a summary of an ACLU case involving a University female,
Diane Wyrgal, appealing the punishment she incurred for breaking dormitory curfew. 

“Black Students Demand End to Racism; As Davison Announces University Stand.” Red and Black 27 March 1969: 1, 4.

On February 26 1969, UGA’s Black Student Union sends President Davison a letter enumerating 22 changes BSU wants in the University’s policies towards black students. Among other things, BSU asks for increased representation and support for black students in the curricula, in the student body, the administration, employment services, and the Board of Regents. President Davison responds by letter that the University already strives to support and service all its students and that active recruitment of black students and advisors would be preferential treatment based on skin color and consequently an act of racism. This issue of the Red and Black prints the entire list of BSU demands and President Davison’s enumerated responses. The exchange between the students and the administration could open a discussion on what it means to be “racist” and to “reversely discriminate.”

“Campus Leaders Ask Students to Follow Non-Violence Course.” Red and Black January 9, 1961: 2.

The Red and Black asks UGA student leaders, such as the senior class president and the Demosthenian Society president, their opinions on “the crisis facing University students.” Quotes from the students’ responses are printed here.

Fitzpatrick, Bruce. “Dean Rusk to Speak for Law Day May 4.” Red and Black 4 April 1968: 2.

Dean Rusk is scheduled to speak at upcoming Law Day activities on the topic of “Only a Lawful Society Can Build a Better Society.” The 54th Secretary of State, Dean Rusk is a “former Rhodes scholar, infantry colonel, and college dean”. Law Day activities will also include tours of the Law School’s new addition and library and meetings of Law School Association.

Hall, Nancy. “Dean Rusk Nod Wins Praise.” Red and Black 13 Jan. 1970: 1, 2.

On December 29, 1969, the Georgia Board of Regents approved, by a vote of 9-4, the appointment of Secretary of State Dean Rusk as Professor of International Law in UGA’s Law school. The strongest opponents to the appointment included staunch segregationist, states’ rights advocate, and Board of Regents member, Roy Harris, and Georgia’s governor, Lestor Maddox. They opposed this position for several reasons, including what they dubbed Rusk’s “liberal” policies, his daughter’s interracial relationship, and the fact that Rusk never completed his law degree. He did not do so only because he was called to military service. Law School professors, however, were eager to have the former Secretary of State on board. 

Holcomb, Todd. “Black Student Leaders to Meet with UGA Administrators.” Red and Black 24 Feb. 1983: 1.

UGA’s Black Student Union charged the University’s Administration with neglecting the needs and concerns of the school’s black students. BSU sent a letter to President Davison asking for increased minority representation in the student body, faculty, and administration, as well as an Afro-American studies program. President Davison’s delayed response to this letter did not address many of BSU’s concerns. Furthermore, a forum organized by BSU to inform the University about the experiences of its black students was not attended by any top administrator, despite invitations. BSU’s letter is another attempt in a 30-year struggle to increase minority representation on campus and in the classroom. 

Reineke, C.E. “Athens Has Its Share of Advocates.” Red and Black 5 May 1982: 1, 3.

This 1982 article depicts activist groups based at UGA, including the Revolutionary Communist Party and the Student Coalition for Peace and Equality. The annual Athens Human Rights Festival, and activist groups’ participation therein, is also discussed. The article demonstrates that civil rights and student movements did not simply stop at the 1969 gate. Political protests and actions continued well into the end of the 20th century, though perhaps in a modified or less abrasive form. These groups’ specific aims have shifted slightly, calling now for nuclear arms disbandment, environmental aid, and some groups even espouse right-wing, Nixon-reminiscent ideologies. 

Tate, Sharon. “Rusk Suggests Means for Peace in Vietnam.” Red and Black 7 May 1968: 1.

Secretary of State Dean Rusk gives the annual Law Day speech from UGA’s Fine Arts Auditorium. He discusses the responsibilities of the international community towards achieving peace in Southeast Asia and stemming the tide of communist infiltration. He specifically touches upon the recent invasion of Laos. The article makes little mention of the students protesting Rusk’s visit outside the Auditorium.

“UGA Law Day, 1968.” Red and Black 7 May 1968: 3.

Four photographs of the Law Day activities are included in this edition of the Red and Black. Two of these photos are of Dean Rusk inside the Fine Arts Auditorium, from where he gave his speech. Two of the photos are of the nearly 100 student protestors demonstrating outside of Auditorium. The students hold up signs accusing the Secretary of State of being a violator of international laws, calling for peace, and for an end to the war in Vietnam. 

Walters, Patrice. “Black Awareness Speakers Call for Change: Whites Face ‘Hell’ Like Blacks – Hamer.” Red and Black 19 May 1970: 3.

Prominent Civil Rights activist and members of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer spoke to UGA students during Black Awareness Week in 1970. She recounted her experiences growing up in an extremely impoverished area of Mississippi, the repercussions of registering to vote, the cruelties committed against Mississippi’s black population on a random but regular basis, and her work with the MFDP in Washington. Mrs. Hamer also eloquently paid tribute to the student protestors of the 60s and the “white college kids” who decided to take a stand against an oppressive and unequal system. She stressed that the civil rights struggle is not one of black rights but of human rights. 

“Strong Stand Is Taken on Campus Disorders.” Savannah Morning News October 10, 1968: 1.

Following the aftermath of the April, 1968 student demonstrations, and given the rise of campus protests occurring throughout the country at this time, the Georgia Board of Regents issues an injunction against any person, student, faculty, or staff member engaging in any act that “destructs or disrupts” the normal functioning and activities of the University. The Board, however, does reaffirm its support of “debate, discussion, peaceful and non-disruptive protest and dissent.” 

Gaines, Marion. “Bootle Orders Negroes Readdmitted at Athens.” Atlanta Constitution 14 Jan. 1961: 1, 4.

Federal Judge W. A. Bootle overrules the suspension of Hunter and Holmes, ordering the University to readmit the students by Monday, January 16. He does not enlist federal marshal protection, finding it superfluous to the protection provided by the state’s own law enforcement officers. Judge Bootle is the same Federal Judge who ordered the original enrollment of Hunter and Holmes

Gaines, Marion. “U.S. Judge to Weigh Suspension.” Atlanta Constitution 13 Jan. 1961: 1, 14. 

Judge W. A. Bootle eliminates Section 8 (a) of Georgia’s 1956 Appropriations Act which held State Treasury funds from integrated Georgia universities and schools. Georgia’s State Treasurer, George Hamilton, complies with the Judge’s ruling, thereby allowing the University of Georgia to remain open after Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes enroll. Judge Bootle does not, however, make any decision during this particular court session as to whether the University should readmit the suspended Hunter and Holmes. Page 12 of this Constitution issue prints the entire legislative text of Judge Bootle’s ruling, including the text of a brief, televised speech made by Governor Vandiver regarding the Appropriations Act.

“Georgie Weeklies Speak on Public School Issues” Atlanta Constitution January 13, 1961: 4

The Constitution prints blurbs from Georgia’s weekly newspapers regarding the integration of UGA. 

“Leader Suspended, Students Sit-In.” Atlanta Constitution 31 May 1968: 1, 13.

The president of the UGA chapter of Students for a Democratic Society, David Simpson, is suspended for one year on account of his participation in the April 10 sit-in protests of the Academic Building. University officials, including Dean William Tate of Hunter and Holmes fame, claim that the sit-ins seriously disrupted University affairs and are even grounds for expulsion. 2 other students are also charged with this offense. Upon hearing of Simpson’s suspension, about 10 students stage a protest of their own outside of President Davison’s office in the Old College Building. They rail against selective incriminations and demand that either all demonstrators be punished or none at all. This wave of protestors leave Old College by nightfall upon threat of arrest.

Powledge, Fred. “Education Not Victory Comes First, Negroes Say.” Atlanta Constitution 15 Jan. 1961: 36.

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, a few days after having been suspended, provide their impressions of their first few hours at UGA the week before. Despite the riots of January 11, 1961 and the rather cool reception by their peers, both Hunter and Holmes remain optimistic about attending UGA and are eager to return to classes. Both also assert that they are not trying to break any racial barriers or change history. They simply want to get the best education possible for their chosen fields: journalism for Charlayne Hunter and medicine for Hamilton Holmes. 

Shipp, Bill. “Professors Ask Return of Negroes.” Atlanta Constitution 13 Jan. 1961: 1, 14.

About 300 professors, or about 50% of the faculty, and thousands of local Athenians and several student groups at UGA sign a petition condemning the Wednesday evening, January 11, 1961 campus riots and asking for the re-admittance of Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes. Holmes and Hunter were suspended from the University immediately after the riots, purportedly for their own safety. This article includes the text of the petition written and signed by these parties.

Fort, Bob. “500 Georgia Students ‘Sleep-In’ For Rights.” Atlanta Daily News 10 April 1968: 1, 2.

Nearly 500 University students marched to the Academic Building in protest of the unequal rules and curfews for male and female students. The students originally only planned to march, but upon arriving at the Academic Building, they undertook a spontaneous sit-in that lasted throughout the night. Though the students were threatened with disciplinary action, and the girls were breaking curfew, they all refused to leave until they secured a meeting with University President Fred Davison to address their grievances. This student action was just one of a wave of campus protests occurring across the country at this time

Shannon, Margaret. “Negroes Suspended After Campus Riot.” Atlanta Journal 12 Jan. 1961: 1, 10, 24.

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes were suspended from UGA late Wednesday evening, after riots broke out in front of Charlayne’s campus dormitory. Page 24 of this issue of the Atlanta Journal displays some striking photos of the night’s events, including tear gas bombs and Charlayne’s evacuation.

“Campus Paper Warned: U.of Georgia Sheet Told to End Segregation Editorials.” New York Times14 Nov. 1953: 12.

Roy Harris of Georgia’s Board of Regents threatens to abolish state funding of UGA’s student-run newspaper, The Red and Black, if it continues to publish editorials that call for the desegregation of the University. 

Popham, John. “Bias Dispute Stirs Georgia University.” New York Times 27 Nov. 1953: 29, 36.

On November 5, 1953, UGA’s student-run newspaper, The Red and Black, published an editorial written by its managing editor, 20-year old Bill Shipp of Marietta, Ga. The editorial leaned liberally toward integration and therefore inflamed the segregationist ire of Board of Regents member and Augusta Courier publisher, Roy Harris. Harris called the Red and Black editors “sissy, misguided squirts” and threatened to cut off state funding to the paper if another article appeared favoring integration. Graduate students at UGA tended to look more kindly on integration than did the undergraduates. 

Morris, Merrill. “A Question of Racism?” Athens Observer 21 Apr.1983: 1, 12.

This article discusses the fact that the Black Student Union (BSU), a body intended to serve and represent the black student community at UGA, presented a list of grievances and demands to President Davison similar to one they had presented to him in 1974. The black students are frustrated that progress has been so slow. The adviser for the BSU says, “Pretty much all the University did in 1961 was open the doors.” Institutional supports, increased recruitment efforts, and the true integration necessary for a productive and healthy college experience, on the other hand, are lacking. The article specifically cites minority enrollment numbers and participation in the all-white Intrafraternity Council. 

Web Sites:

40th Anniversary of UGA’s Desegregation. UGA News Service. 9 January 2001.
<http://www.uga.edu/news/desegregation/index.html>.

This website was created to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the integration of UGA and to organize the anniversary celebrations that took place at UGA on January 9, 2001. The page recounts the history of the 1961 events, including an elegant collection of photos and bios of key players. It importantly includes a variety of personal recollections provided by University alumni who interacted with, supported, or followed in the path paved by Hunter and Holmes. Annotations of books and listings of websites that shed further light on the desegregation activities are another useful tool provided by the website.

CNN.com. “On integration anniversary, racial divide still troubles U. of Georgia.” Steve
Nettleton and The Associated Press. 9 January 2001.
<http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/01/09/uga.anniversary/index.html>.

This CNN article describes UGA’s celebration of the 40th anniversary of its integration, but also contemporizes the issues by discussing a lawsuit filed in 2000 by white students accusing the University of reverse discrimination.

Fire In A Canebrake. 2002. Retrieved 22 September 2006.
<http://www.fireinacanebrake.com/>

This is the official website of Laura Wexler’s influential book, Fire in a Canebrake documenting the 1946 unsolved mass-lynching that took place in Monroe, Georgia. The website includes excerpts from the book, a record of an interview with the author, contact information for the author, and photos of the grave sites dedicated to the murdered victims.

Foot Soldier Project. The Foot Soldier Project for Civil Rights Studies at the University of
Georgia. 17 September 2006.
<http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/about/intro.html>.

The Foot Soldier Project aims to honor and document the stories of civil rights activists often overlooked in the traditional narratives of legends and leaders that dominate civil rights teachings. This thorough and helpful webpage describes the varied efforts and goals of FSP, such as community outreach, extensive archival research, and the dissemination of civil rights knowledge through a variety of media, including web-based resources and documentary films.

Moore’s Ford Memorial Committee. 22 September 2006
<http://www.mooresford.org/>

This biracial Moore’s Ford Memorial Committee formed in 1997 to honor, memorialize, and keep alive the tragic story of the 4 persons murdered on the Moore’s Ford Bridge in 1946. The website provides information on the Committee’s current activities, including grave restoration, monument construction, and their annual Memorial Scholarship awarded to students working in racial justice and reconciliation. The webpage also includes links to recent books and articles discussing the Moore’s Ford case, as well as to other websites committed to racial equality and remembrance efforts. 

New Georgia Encyclopedia. Ed. John Inscoe. 16 October 2006.
< http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Home.jsp>.

Each of the following links offers in-depth and well-researched insights into the incidents, people, and places integral to Movement and integration activities at the University of Georgia in Athens, GA, or gives an overview of the history and composition of Athens and The University.

“A.T. Walden (1885 – 1965).” < http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2739&hl=y>.

“Athens.” < http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2210>.

“Bill Shipp (b. 1933).” < http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2461>.

“Charlayne Hunter-Gault (b. 1942).” <http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2433&hl=y>.

“Hamilton Holmes (1941 – 1955).” <http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1225&hl=y>.

“Horace Ward (b. 1927).” < http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-880&sug=y>.

“Ku Klux Klan in the Twentieth Century.”<http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2730&hl=y>.

http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2730&hl=y http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2730&hl=y

“Mary Frances Early (b. 1936).” <http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1225&hl=y>.

“University of Georgia.” <http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1059&sug=y>.

“University System of Georgia.” < http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1415&hl=y>.

“Vernon Jordan (b. 1935).” < http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2518>.

“William Bootle (1902 – 2005).” <http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2732&hl=y>.

 

 

UGA Archives and Finding Aids on Integration. 21 April 2006.
<http://www.libs.uga.edu/hargrett/archives/integration/integration1.html>.

This webpage was created under the UGA Libraries’ Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscripts Library to provide information on the history of integration at UGA and the collection of archival materials owned by the Hargrett Library. The page is very unique because it traces the issue of integration to the Reconstruction era. The webpage also includes links to .jpg images of a few select items, such as telegrams sent by Board of Regents member and segregationist, Roy Harris, as well as the letter sent to Charlayne Hunter informing her of her suspension.

Films:

Foot Soldier of Equal Justice. Dir. Janice Reaves. Exec. Prods. Maurice Daniels and Derrick Alridge.
Georgia Center for Education, 2006.

This documentary is based on the above-mentioned biography, Horace T. Ward: Desegregation of the University of Georgia, Civil Rights Advocacy, and Jurisprudence, written by Dr. Maurice Daniels. For an extremely detailed summary of the film and to watch a few telling clips, please visit: http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/research/films.html#justice

Hamilton Earl Holmes: The Legacy Continues. Dir. Maurice Daniels. Prod. Maurice Daniels, Derrick Alridge, and Janice Reaves.. Foot Soldier Project, 2003.

This documentary, which aired on Georgia Public Television in 2004, recounts Hamilton Holmes’s early years, his experiences as the first African-American male to attend the University of Georgia, and his very successful career as a student at Emory Medical School and later as a prominent orthopedic surgeon in Atlanta. For a more detailed summary of the film and to watch a few clips, please visit: http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/research/films.html#justice.

 

Daniels, Maurice. Horace T. Ward: Desegregation of UGA, Civil Rights Jurisprudence, and Advocacy. 
Atlanta, GA: Clark Atlanta University Press, 2001.

In this biography, University of Georgia’s Dean of the School of Social Work, Dr. Maurice Daniels, pays homage to the life and achievements of unsung “foot soldier,” Horace T. Ward.  Dr. Daniels traces the legal and political battles that plagued Ward on his journey from being UGA’s first (thwarted) African-American applicant to becoming the State of Georgia’s first African-American Federal Judge. Dr. Daniels’ research is thorough, borrowing from original archival and legislative documents.  He also interviews many important figures of the fight to desegregate schools in Georgia, including NAACP and civil rights attorneys Constance Baker Motley and Donald Hollowell, and Georgia segregationist governor, Ernest Vandiver.  This book is also the foundation for the documentary film, Foot Soldier for Equal Justice, which aired on Georgia Public Television in 2001.  (See http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/research/films.html#justice for more information about this film, including a very detailed summary).

English, John W. & Rob Williams. When Men Were Boys: An Informal Portrait of Dean William Tate.
Lakemont, GA: Copple House Books, 1984.

This biography explores the life and philosophy of UGA’s efficacious Dean of Men during the 1960s, William Tate. An entire chapter, “His Mettle” (p 168 – 196), is devoted to Dean Tate’s relatively sympathetic and egalitarian response to the University’s integration, and the public and professional criticisms he consequently received.  The detailed discussions of Tate’s pedagogical and administrative ideals in the remaining chapters shed necessary light on a perspective not often discussed: that of University officials who were more concerned with maintaining a harmonious and reputable institution than with further fortifying the walls of racism.  Dean Tate’s biography demonstrates that civil rights progress could be aided by those who did not necessarily consider themselves civil rights activists. 

Pratt, Robert A. We Shall Not Be Moved: The Desegregation of the University of Georgia. Athens, GA:
University of Georgia Press, 2002.

Pratt expands on Calvin Trillin’s history of the desegregation of UGA (see Trillin below) by detailing the years preceding and following Holmes and Hunter’s matriculation at The University.  He traces the NAACP’s early efforts at integrating schools throughout the South in the 1940s and 50s, focusing primarily on Horace Ward’s thwarted application to UGA’s Law School in 1950, an application process that began years of court battles and University stall tactics.  In conjunction with Trillin’s account, Pratt’s history and insights will provide readers with a comprehensive portrait of many of the players and moments responsible in The University’s yet-ongoing efforts to have a truly integrated and color-blind campus. 

Shipp, William. Murder at Broad River Bridge. The Slaying of Lemuel Penn by Members of the Ku Klux
Klan. Atlanta, Ga: Peachtree Press, 1981. 

Journalist Bill Shipp tells the tragic story of the murder of Army Colonel Lemuel Penn on the Broad River Bridge in July, 1964.  Shipp details the climate of racial tensions in Athens during 1964, the events of the fateful night of Mr. Penn’s murder, the subsequent investigation, the trial of the Klan suspects, and the Federal Civil Suit brought against the murder suspects.  Shipp’s writing is clear and compelling, and his research is impressively detailed. 
 
Trillin, Calvin. An Education in Georgia: Charlayne Hunter, Hamilton Holmes, and the Integration of the
University of Georgia.  Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1963/1991.

Written by Time magazine correspondent Calvin Trillin in the early 1960s, this book details Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes’s experiences as the first African-American students enrolled at UGA.  Rather than limiting his discussion to the courtroom or to the first couple of weeks of classes of that 1961 year, Trillin follows Hunter and Holmes throughout their entire tenure.  He takes us into the minds of the young students, follows them in their daily routines, speaks to their professors, and asks about their social lives.  He also incorporates a discussion of the political climate of that era, interviewing prominent civil rights leaders in Atlanta, administrators at the University, and the oft-overlooked few African-American students who entered UGA a few shorts months after Hunter and Holmes, like UGA’s first African-American graduate, Mary Frances Early and first African-American male to reside in the dorms, Harold Black.  The book is extremely accessible, engaging, and provides very valuable insights into the experiences of the daily, lived experiences of these ground-breaking students. 

Wexler, Laura. Fire in a Canebrake: The Last Mass Lynching in America.  New York: Scribner, 2003.

This touted historical account records, in well-researched detail and novelistic form, the tragic events that conspired on the Moore’s Ford Bridge in Monroe, Georgia, near Athens.  In July, 1946, four young African American friends, one of whom happened to a recent World War II veteran, were viciously murdered while driving through Madison.  No suspects have yet been charged with the murder, but Wexler’s book takes us into the heart of a town and era in which such atrocities could occur and go unpunished.

See http://www.uga.edu/news/desegregation/in_print/index.html for annotations of the following books which discuss the desegregation of UGA:

Boney, F.N. A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2000.
Dyer, Jr., Thomas.  The University of Georgia: A Bicentennial History 1785-1985. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1985.
Gault-Hunter, Charlayne. In My Place. NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1992.

Henderson, Harold Paulk. Ernest Vandiver: Governor of Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Motley, Constance Baker. Equal Justice Under the Law. NY: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1998.

Journal Articles:

Cohen, Robert. "G-Men in Georgia: The FBI and the Segregationist Riot at the University of Georgia,
1961." Georgia Historical Quarterly 83 (Fall 1999): 508-38.

In this article, Dr. Cohen uses declassified (yet heavily censored and excised) FBI files to shed investigative light on the segregationist riots that occurred at UGA on the evening of January 11, 1961.  These FBI files allow Dr. Cohen to broaden our understanding of the collusion between rioters and state political leaders and between rioters and the Ku Klux Klan.  Dr. Cohen also discusses Athens’ reaction to the presence of FBI agents after the riots. 

Cohen, Robert. “‘Two, Four, Six, Eight, We Don’t Want to Integrate’: White Student Attitudes Toward
the University of Georgia’s Desegregation.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 79.3 (Fall 1996): 616 – 645.

Cohen seeks to understand more fully “what desegregation meant on the campuses where it occurred” (621).  He forms his argument around 35 essays written in a Calculus class by white UGA students only a few days after the January 11, 1961 evening riot.  The students’ essays and Cohen’s commentary provide valuable interior perspectives on the educational system at that time, including its curricula, teacher-student interactions, and textbooks, and also help to contextualize the racist attitudes of students raised in a Jim Crow South.  The article also demonstrates that even within a racist environment, some students could risk social ostracism and call for justice and integration.

Pratt, Robert A. “The Rhetoric of Hate: The Demosthenian Literary Society and its Opposition to the
Desegregation of the University of Georgia, 1950-1964.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 90.2
(Summer 2006): 236 – 260.

Dr. Pratt discusses the University of Georgia’s literary and debate society, Demosthenian, and its stringent opposition to integration.  Pratt follows Demosthenian’s meeting minutes from Horace Ward’s application to the University in 1950, through the 1961 integration, and finally Demosthenian’s nullified vote to integrate itself in 1964.  The article elucidates the fact that racist fervor during the protracted process of school desegregation was not isolated to top-level political players and legislators.  Instead, some of the most acerbic resistance to integration took place among community members and students who became increasingly segregationist as the country tried to become more egalitarian.

Newspaper Articles:

Athens Banner-Herald
Dye, Thomas. “Punitive Action Would Mar Record at U. GA” & Vaughn, Glenn. “Who Calls the Shots
in Chaos?” Athens Banner-Herald19 May 1968: 4

Political  Science Department Head and Professor, Dr. Thomas Dye, reads the April, 1968 sleep-in protests that took place in UGA’s Administration Building (see below: Fort in Atlanta Daily News articles) in the context of the national upsurge of student demonstrations, reasoning that students resort to such confrontational tactics when they feel their voices are unheard in the tangle of university bureaucracies.  Dr. Dye’s opinions are compassionate towards both students and administrators, a stark contrast to the opinions expressed in the adjacent column by Daily World editor, Glenn Vaughn, who blames UGA’s April protests on the communist-infiltrated “pitiful little minority of fuzzy, way out college students” led by Students for a Democratic Society.

Ingle, Bob. “Campus Protests – Only a Beginning?” Athens Banner-Herald14 April 1968: 1, 2

Ingle offers insights into the motivation of April’s (1968) demonstrators and SDS president, David Simpson, including a brief history of students’ thwarted efforts to communicate with UGA President, Fred Davison.  Ingle also discusses responses to the demonstrations, including sympathetic reaction from some UGA faculty and from the Campus Ministry Association.  This editorial offers a unique perspective in that it positions the April demonstrations within a continuum of stunted interactions between students and Administration, rather than seeing the demonstration as an isolated incident.

Mickelbury, Penny. “Black Student Problems Tackled.” Athens Banner-Herald 9 Dec.1970: 1, 8.

In December 1970, the University hosts a four-day series of lectures, poetry readings, team-building activities and consciousness raising groups focused on the experiences of black students at the University.  The conference, entitled, “Focus: Black, In-Service Education for Residence Staff,” seeks to educate residence hall staff with “the particular problems of the black student on campus.”  Mr. Frank Wiley, among others, will read from his poetry. 

“Official Report Given on Disorder.” Athens Banner-Herald.  12 January 1961: 1.

This brief report provides a specific, hour-by-hour chronology of the events that took place on the evening of the campus riots (Wednesday January 11, 1961) protesting against integration at UGA.  The report mentions the delayed and ineffectual response of the Georgia State Patrol.

Tilley, Ray. “Rally Seeks Action to Free US Hostages.” Athens Daily News/Banner-Herald 14 Nov.
1979: 1, 18.

Several hundred demonstrators gather on the UGA campus in reaction to the hostages held at the US embassy in Iran.  The rally includes proponents and opponents of the Iranians and the Shah.  Every Iranian student in the States at this time was ordered to report to Immigration and Naturalization Services to have their “credentials” inspected.  The article is important for highlighting continued, post-1960s student actions at the University, and it serves as a timely reminder of how easily xenophobia and prejudice can emerge in times of national crisis.

Toon, John. “Black Students Protest.” Athens Banner-Herald 27 Feb.1974: 1, 7.

On Tuesday February 26, 1974, nearly 100 of the approximately 500 black students enrolled at UGA marched from the Russell dormitory to President Davison’s office.  The leaders of the demonstration met with President Davison to ask that the University begin to actively recruit and support minority students, professors, and administrators.  Some students conjectured that this march was spurred by “bum calls” during a basketball game between a black and white fraternity, but the demonstration leaders denied this claim.  The day after this march, the Black Student Union, the body representing the black student body, convened a special session that was closed to journalists, non-BSU students, and administrators.  The BSU did not provide any comment as to the reasons for or the items discussed in the meeting.

Athens Daily News

Bailey, Sharon. “Protestors Muster One Orange Tent.” Athens Daily News 1 June 1968: 1, 2

A group of UGA students erected a small protest tent and campsite in front of the Academic Building to protest the suspension, or “persecution,” of two University students and the trial of a third for participation in an April, 1968 sleep-in at the Academic Building.  These April protestors were demanding equal rights for the University’s women.  (See below: Fort, Bob. “500 Students Sleep-In for Rights.”)

Fort, Bob. “Fire Rules Wet Protestors.” Athens Daily News 12 April 1968: 11.

On the evening of April 12, the hundreds of students who had camped out in the Academic Building in protest of unequal rules for male and female students vacated the building so as to avoid arrest on fire hazard violations.  This article specifies the students’ original demands, discusses the administrative reaction to the protests, and also introduces a summary of an ACLU case involving a University female,
Diane Wyrgal, appealing the punishment she incurred for breaking dormitory curfew. 

Red and Black

“Black Students Demand End to Racism; As Davison Announces University Stand” Red and Black 27
March 1969: 1, 4.

On February 26 1969, UGA’s Black Student Union sends President Davison a letter enumerating 22 changes BSU wants in the University’s policies towards black students.  Among other things, BSU asks for increased representation and support for black students in the curricula, in the student body, the administration, employment services, and the Board of Regents.  President Davison responds by letter that the University already strives to support and service all its students and that active recruitment of black students and advisors would be preferential treatment based on skin color and consequently an act of racism.  This issue of the Red and Black prints the entire list of BSU demands and President Davison’s enumerated responses. The exchange between the students and the administration could open a discussion on what it means to be “racist” and to “reversely discriminate.”

“Campus Leaders Ask Students to Follow Non-Violence Course.” Red and BlackJanuary 9, 1961: 2.

The Red and Black asks UGA student leaders, such as the senior class president and the Demosthenian Society president, their opinions on “the crisis facing University students.”  Quotes from the students’ responses are printed here.

Fitzpatrick, Bruce. “Dean Rusk to Speak for Law Day May 4” Red and Black 4 April 1968: 2.

Dean Rusk is scheduled to speak at upcoming Law Day activities on the topic of “Only a Lawful Society Can Build a Better Society.”  The 54th Secretary of State, Dean Rusk is a “former Rhodes scholar, infantry colonel, and college dean”. Law Day activities will also include tours of the Law School’s new addition and library and meetings of Law School Association.

Hall, Nancy. “Dean Rusk Nod Wins Praise.” Red and Black 13 Jan. 1970: 1, 2.

On December 29, 1969, the Georgia Board of Regents approved, by a vote of 9-4, the appointment of Secretary of State Dean Rusk as Professor of International Law in UGA’s Law school.  The strongest opponents to the appointment included staunch segregationist, states’ rights advocate, and Board of Regents member, Roy Harris, and Georgia’s governor, Lestor Maddox.  They opposed this position for several reasons, including what they dubbed Rusk’s “liberal” policies, his daughter’s interracial relationship, and the fact that Rusk never completed his law degree.  He did not do so only because he was called to military service.  Law School professors, however, were eager to have the former Secretary of State on board. 

Holcomb, Todd. “Black Student Leaders to Meet with UGA Administrators.” Red and Black24 Feb.
1983: 1.

UGA’s Black Student Union charged the University’s Administration with neglecting the needs and concerns of the school’s black students.  BSU sent a letter to President Davison asking for increased minority representation in the student body, faculty, and administration, as well as an Afro-American studies program. President Davison’s delayed response to this letter did not address many of BSU’s concerns.  Furthermore, a forum organized by BSU to inform the University about the experiences of its black students was not attended by any top administrator, despite invitations.  BSU’s letter is another attempt in a 30-year struggle to increase minority representation on campus and in the classroom. 

Reineke, C.E. “Athens Has Its Share of Advocates” Red and Black5 May 1982: 1, 3.

This 1982 article depicts activist groups based at UGA, including the Revolutionary Communist Party and the Student Coalition for Peace and Equality.  The annual Athens Human Rights Festival, and activist groups’ participation therein, is also discussed.  The article demonstrates that civil rights and student movements did not simply stop at the 1969 gate. Political protests and actions continued well into the end of the 20th century, though perhaps in a modified or less abrasive form.  These groups’ specific aims have shifted slightly, calling now for nuclear arms disbandment, environmental aid, and some groups even espouse right-wing, Nixon-reminiscent ideologies. 

Tate, Sharon. “Rusk Suggests Means for Peace in Vietnam” Red and Black 7 May 1968: 1.

Secretary of State Dean Rusk gives the annual Law Day speech from UGA’s Fine Arts Auditorium.  He discusses the responsibilities of the international community towards achieving peace in Southeast Asia and stemming the tide of communist infiltration.  He specifically touches upon the recent invasion of Laos.  The article makes little mention of the students protesting Rusk’s visit outside the Auditorium.

“UGA Law Day, 1968.” Red and Black 7 May 1968: 3.

Four photographs of the Law Day activities are included in this edition of the Red and Black.  Two of these photos are of Dean Rusk inside the Fine Arts Auditorium, from where he gave his speech.  Two of the photos are of the nearly 100 student protestors demonstrating outside of Auditorium.  The students hold up signs accusing the Secretary of State of being a violator of international laws, calling for peace, and for an end to the war in Vietnam. 

Walters, Patrice. “Black Awareness Speakers Call for Change: Whites Face ‘Hell’ Like Blacks – Hamer.”
Red and Black 19 May 1970: 3.
                                                                       
Prominent Civil Rights activist and members of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer spoke to UGA students during Black Awareness Week in 1970.  She recounted her experiences growing up in an extremely impoverished area of Mississippi, the repercussions of registering to vote, the cruelties committed against Mississippi’s black population on a random but regular basis, and her work with the MFDP in Washington.  Mrs. Hamer also eloquently paid tribute to the student protestors of the 60s and the “white college kids” who decided to take a stand against an oppressive and unequal system.  She stressed that the civil rights struggle is not one of black rights but of human rights. 

Savannah Morning News

“Strong Stand Is Taken on Campus Disorders.” Savannah Morning News, October 10, 1968: 1.

Following the aftermath of the April, 1968 student demonstrations, and given the rise of campus protests occurring throughout the country at this time, the Georgia Board of Regents issues an injunction against any person, student, faculty, or staff member engaging in any act that “destructs or disrupts” the normal functioning and activities of the University.  The Board, however, does reaffirm its support of “debate, discussion, peaceful and non-disruptive protest and dissent.”  

Atlanta Constitution

Gaines, Marion. “Bootle Orders Negroes Readdmitted at Athens.” Atlanta Constitution 14 Jan. 1961: 1, 4

Federal Judge W. A. Bootle overrules the suspension of Hunter and Holmes, ordering the University to readmit the students by Monday, January 16.  He does not enlist federal marshal protection, finding it superfluous to the protection provided by the state’s own law enforcement officers. Judge Bootle is the same Federal Judge who ordered the original enrollment of Hunter and Holmes

Gaines, Marion. “U.S. Judge to Weigh Suspension.” Atlanta Constitution. 13 Jan. 1961: 1, 14. 

Judge W. A. Bootle eliminates Section 8 (a) of Georgia’s 1956 Appropriations Act which held State Treasury funds from integrated Georgia universities and schools.  Georgia’s State Treasurer, George Hamilton, complies with the Judge’s ruling, thereby allowing the University of Georgia to remain open after Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes enroll.  Judge Bootle does not, however, make any decision during this particular court session as to whether the University should readmit the suspended Hunter and Holmes.  Page 12 of this Constitution issue prints the entire legislative text of Judge Bootle’s ruling, including the text of a brief, televised speech made by Governor Vandiver regarding the Appropriations Act.

“Georgie Weeklies Speak on Public School Issues” Atlanta Constitution January 13, 1961: 4

The Constitution prints blurbs from Georgia’s weekly newspapers regarding the integration of UGA. 

“Leader Suspended, Students Sit-In.” Atlanta Constitution31 May 1968: 1, 13.

The president of the UGA chapter of Students for a Democratic Society, David Simpson, is suspended for one year on account of his participation in the April 10 sit-in protests of the Academic Building.  University officials, including Dean William Tate of Hunter and Holmes fame, claim that the sit-ins seriously disrupted University affairs and are even grounds for expulsion.  2 other students are also charged with this offense.  Upon hearing of Simpson’s suspension, about 10 students stage a protest of their own outside of President Davison’s office in the Old College Building.  They rail against selective incriminations and demand that either all demonstrators be punished or none at all.  This wave of protestors leave Old College by nightfall upon threat of arrest.

Powledge, Fred. “Education Not Victory Comes First, Negroes Say.” Atlanta Journal and Constitution 15
Jan. 1961: 36.

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes, a few days after having been suspended, provide their impressions of their first few hours at UGA the week before.  Despite the riots of January 11, 1961 and the rather cool reception by their peers, both Hunter and Holmes remain optimistic about attending UGA and are eager to return to classes.  Both also assert that they are not trying to break any racial barriers or change history.  They simply want to get the best education possible for their chosen fields: journalism for Charlayne Hunter and medicine for Hamilton Holmes.  

Shipp, Bill. “Professors Ask Return of Negroes.” Atlanta Constitution13 Jan. 1961: 1, 14.

About 300 professors, or about 50% of the faculty, and thousands of local Athenians and several student groups at UGA sign a petition condemning the Wednesday evening, January 11, 1961 campus riots and asking for the re-admittance of Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes.  Holmes and Hunter were suspended from the University immediately after the riots, purportedly for their own safety.   This article includes the text of the petition written and signed by these parties.

Atlanta Daily News

Fort, Bob. “500 Georgia Students ‘Sleep-In’ For Rights.” Atlanta Daily News10 April 1968: 1, 2.

Nearly 500 University students marched to the Academic Building in protest of the unequal rules and curfews for male and female students.  The students originally only planned to march, but upon arriving at the Academic Building, they undertook a spontaneous sit-in that lasted throughout the night.  Though the students were threatened with disciplinary action, and the girls were breaking curfew, they all refused to leave until they secured a meeting with University President Fred Davison to address their grievances.  This student action was just one of a wave of campus protests occurring across the country at this time

Atlanta Journal

Shannon, Margaret. “Negroes Suspended After Campus Riot” Atlanta Journal 12 Jan. 1961: 1, 10, 24.

Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes were suspended from UGA late Wednesday evening, after riots broke out in front of Charlayne’s campus dormitory.  Page 24 of this issue of the Atlanta Journal displays some striking photos of the night’s events, including tear gas bombs and Charlayne’s evacuation.

New York Times

“Campus Paper Warned: U.of Georgia Sheet Told to End Segregation Editorials.” New York Times14
Nov. 1953: 12.

Roy Harris of Georgia’s Board of Regents threatens to abolish state funding of UGA’s student-run newspaper, The Red and Black, if it continues to publish editorials that call for the desegregation of the University. 

Popham, John. “Bias Dispute Stirs Georgia University.” New York Times27 Nov. 1953: 29, 36.

On November 5, 1953, UGA’s student-run newspaper, The Red and Black, published an editorial written by its managing editor, 20-year old Bill Shipp of Marietta, Ga.  The editorial leaned liberally toward integration and therefore inflamed the segregationist ire of Board of Regents member and Augusta Courier publisher, Roy Harris.  Harris called the Red and Black editors “sissy, misguided squirts” and threatened to cut off state funding to the paper if another article appeared favoring integration.  Graduate students at UGA tended to look more kindly on integration than did the undergraduates. 

Athens Observer

Morris, Merrill. “A Question of Racism?” Athens Observer21 Apr.1983: 1, 12.

This article discusses the fact that the Black Student Union (BSU), a body intended to serve and represent the black student community at UGA, presented a list of grievances and demands to President Davison similar to one they had presented to him in 1974.  The black students are frustrated that progress has been so slow.  The adviser for the BSU says, “Pretty much all the University did in 1961 was open the doors.”  Institutional supports, increased recruitment efforts, and the true integration necessary for a productive and healthy college experience, on the other hand, are lacking. The article specifically cites minority enrollment numbers and participation in the all-white Intrafraternity Council. 

 

Web Sites:

40th Anniversary of UGA’s Desegregation. UGA News Service. 9 January 2001.
<http://www.uga.edu/news/desegregation/index.html>.

This website was created to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the integration of UGA and to organize the anniversary celebrations that took place at UGA on January 9, 2001.  The page recounts the history of the 1961 events, including an elegant collection of photos and bios of key players.  It importantly includes a variety of personal recollections provided by University alumni who interacted with, supported, or followed in the path paved by Hunter and Holmes.  Annotations of books and listings of websites that shed further light on the desegregation activities are another useful tool provided by the website.

CNN.com. “On integration anniversary, racial divide still troubles U. of Georgia.” Steve
Nettleton and The Associated Press. 9 January 2001.
<http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/01/09/uga.anniversary/index.html>.

This CNN article describes UGA’s celebration of the 40th anniversary of its integration, but also contemporizes the issues by discussing a lawsuit filed in 2000 by white students accusing the University of reverse discrimination.

Fire In A Canebrake.  2002.  Retrieved 22 September 2006.
<http://www.fireinacanebrake.com/>

This is the official website of Laura Wexler’s influential book, Fire in a Canebrake documenting the 1946 unsolved mass-lynching that took place in Monroe, Georgia.  The website includes excerpts from the book, a record of an interview with the author, contact information for the author, and photos of the grave sites dedicated to the murdered victims.

Foot Soldier Project. The Foot Soldier Project for Civil Rights Studies at the University of
Georgia. 17 September 2006.
<http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/about/intro.html>.

The Foot Soldier Project aims to honor and document the stories of civil rights activists often overlooked in the traditional narratives of legends and leaders that dominate civil rights teachings.  This thorough and helpful webpage describes the varied efforts and goals of FSP, such as community outreach, extensive archival research, and the dissemination of civil rights knowledge through a variety of media, including web-based resources and documentary films.

Moore’s Ford Memorial Committee.  22 September 2006
<http://www.mooresford.org/>

This biracial Moore’s Ford Memorial Committee formed in 1997 to honor, memorialize, and keep alive the tragic story of the 4 persons murdered on the Moore’s Ford Bridge in 1946.  The website provides information on the Committee’s current activities, including grave restoration, monument construction, and their annual Memorial Scholarship awarded to students working in racial justice and reconciliation.  The webpage also includes links to recent books and articles discussing the Moore’s Ford case, as well as to other websites committed to racial equality and remembrance efforts. 

New Georgia Encyclopedia. Ed. John Inscoe. 16 October 2006.
< http://www.newgeorgiaencyclopedia.com/nge/Home.jsp>.
           
Each of the following links offers in-depth and well-researched insights into the incidents, people, and places integral to Movement and integration activities at the University of Georgia in Athens, GA, or gives an overview of the history and composition of Athens and The University.

 

UGA Archives and Finding Aids on Integration.  21 April 2006.
                <http://www.libs.uga.edu/hargrett/archives/integration/integration1.html>.

This webpage was created under the UGA Libraries’ Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscripts Library to provide information on the history of integration at UGA and the collection of archival materials owned by the Hargrett Library.  The page is very unique because it traces the issue of integration to the Reconstruction era.   The webpage also includes links to .jpg images of a few select items, such as telegrams sent by Board of Regents member and segregationist, Roy Harris, as well as the letter sent to Charlayne Hunter informing her of her suspension.

Films:

Foot Soldier of Equal Justice. Dir. Janice Reaves.  Exec. Prods. Maurice Daniels and Derrick Alridge.
Georgia Center for Education, 2006.

This documentary is based on the above-mentioned biography, Horace T. Ward: Desegregation of the University of Georgia, Civil Rights Advocacy, and Jurisprudence, written by Dr. Maurice Daniels.  For an extremely detailed summary of the film and to watch a few telling clips, please visit: http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/research/films.html#justice

Hamilton Earl Holmes: The Legacy Continues. Dir. Maurice Daniels.  Prod. Maurice Daniels, Derrick Alridge, and Janice Reaves..  Foot Soldier Project, 2003.

This documentary, which aired on Georgia Public Television in 2004, recounts Hamilton Holmes’s early years, his experiences as the first African-American male to attend the University of Georgia, and his very successful career as a student at Emory Medical School and later as a prominent orthopedic surgeon in Atlanta.  For a more detailed summary of the film and to watch a few clips, please visit: http://www.footsoldier.uga.edu/research/films.html#justice.