Savannah Bibliography

Elmore, Charles J. Black American Series: Savannah Georgia Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2000.

Fairclough, Adam. To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987.

This book explores the relationship between the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as how the organization developed during and after King. It includes struggle between Hosea Williams and the organization about his tactics such as night marches.

Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1979.

Provides an overview of the Vietnam War and its effects on the domestic realm. It focuses mostly on U.S. foreign policy from the end of WWII to the withdrawal of American forces from South Vietnam in 1975. 

Kotz, Nick. Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King, and the Laws that Changed America. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.

This book includes a look at the relationship between King and Hosea Williams and what role Williams played in King’s civil rights campaigns.

Ling, John Peter. Martin Luther King. New York: Routledge, 2002.

This book includes discussion of the beginnings, effects and development of Hosea Williams’ night marches.

Schmaltz, William H. Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party. Washington: Brassey’s, 1999.

This book chronicles the life of George L. Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party. It traces the development of the party, their political platform, and the protest and demonstrations this party conducted.

Tuck, Stephen G. N. Beyond Atlanta: The Struggle for Racial Equality in 1940-1980. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

This book looks at how the civil rights movement took place in cities around Georgia including chapters and sections on Savannah, its night marches and the processes toward equality.

Williams, Juan. Eyes on the Prize: America ’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. New York: Viking, 1987.
A companion to the Eyes on The Prize video series.


Farrell, Ann Marie Burnham. “The 1970 Gubernatorial Election in the State of Georgia.” Thesis (M.A.) University of Georgia, January 4, 1980.

As an overview of the 1970 election for Georgia governor, this text provides information on the Democratic and Republican primaries, candidates and their campaign platforms, voter trends, and the outcomes of the final election.

Journal Articles:

Edelman, Marian Wright. “Southern School Desegregation, 1954-1973: A Judicial-Political Overview.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 407 (1973): 32-42.

Describes the legal hurdles and challenges to the enforcement of the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court ruling. Includes a discussion of the lack of a definite timeline and southern resistance as the most effective barriers to integration. It also details the busing controversy and efforts to force desegregation.

Laird, Melvin R. “A Strong Start in a Difficult Decade: Defense Policy in the Nixon-Ford Years.” International Security 10 (1985): 5-26.

This article explores the foreign defense policies of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford from 1969 to 1973. Offers detailed explanations of the policies surrounding the Vietnam war and explains the Nixon Doctrine.

McAndrews, Lawrence J. “The Politics of Principle: Richard Nixon and School Desegregation.” The Journal of Negro History 83 (1998): 187-200.

Outlines President Richard Nixon’s actions toward integration that often reflected the ambivalence of larger society.

Newspaper Articles:

Carpenter, Bill. “First Lady Will Accompany President on Visit.” Savannah Morning News 7 October 1970: 1+.

Announced that First Lady Pat Nixon would travel with her husband on his tour of Savannah.

Carpenter, Bill. “Governor Attacks Political Motive.” Savannah Morning News 6 October 1971: 1.

This article outlines Governor Lester Maddox’s position on President Nixon’s visit to Savannah. Maddox charged the President with visiting the city to further the gubernatorial campaign of Republican Hal Suit. Maddox did welcome the President, but had refused to participate in the motorcade and parade organized for the visit.

Crosby, Steve. “Maddox Urges Parents to Resist All Busing: Macon Mayor Also Speaks at Stadium.” Savannah Morning News 2 September 1971: 1+.

Describes the result of the anti-busing rally held at Memorial Stadium. Lieutenant Governor Lester Maddox and Mayor Thompson of Macon addressed the crowd of protesters.

Fish, Jeannette. “Lawrence Adopts Paring Concept.” Savannah Morning News 1 September 1971: 1+.

Describes the “Revised Plan F” that detailed the ways students would separated to fulfill integration guidelines. The plan paired some black schools with white schools and clustered others to reach a more equal ratio of black to white students.

Fish, Jeannette. “Officials Urge Cooperation in “Time of Crisis.”” Savannah Morning News 1 September 1971: D1+.

The local school board members and officers encourage residents to adhere to the redistricting plans created to enforce integration of elementary and secondary schools.

Marshall, Ann. “Anti-Busing Group Disrupts School Board Meeting.” Savannah Morning News 7 October 1970: 1D.

Savannah parents and students block a school board meeting to protest federally mandated busing ordered to further integration. The group crowded the Board of Education forcing the president to adjourn the meeting before it started.

Marshall, Ann. “Some 400 Cars Participate in “No Busing” Motorcade.” Savannah Morning News 7 September 1971. D1.

Policemen lead a motorcade of over 400 cars that drove through the city to protest forced busing.

Rhodes, Don and Cindi Colley. “Bus Foes Shun Racist Support.” Savannah Morning News 11 September 1971: B1.

Local anti-bus activists resist members of the National Socialist White People’s Party who also try to join in the protest. Savannah police eventually escort the nine men out of the city limits. Some parents argued that their issue was not about race, but about freedom of choice.

Ryan, Joe. “Maddox to Address Foes of School Integration Plan.” Savannah Morning News 1 September 1971: D1.

Announces Lieutenant Governor Lester Maddox’s plan to hold a mass meeting for anti-busing protesters.

Ryan, Joe. “Protestors Keep up the Beat Crowd Heckles Mayor. Halligan Effigy Burned.” Savannah Morning News 10 September 1971: B1.

Anti-bus protesters burn an effigy of the school board president, Julian C. Halligan.

Smith, Robert M. "Savannah Turns Out for the President." New York Times 9 October 1970: 41.

---. “Nixon’s Visit Confirmed.” Savannah Morning News 5 October 1970: 1B.

Describes Nixon’s upcoming visit to Savannah where he will dedicate research facilities at the Ocean Science Center. It also mentions Georgia’s upcoming gubernatorial election and the role Nixon’s visit will play for Georgia Republicans.

---. “First Lady Visits Postal Academy Program.” The Herald 10 October 1970: 9.

Pictures First Lady, Pat Nixon as she poses with a photo of graduates of the Chicago Postal Academy, an educational center for high school dropouts.

---. “Tear Gas, Hoses Rout Negroes Here: Several injured in Rioting” Savannah Morning News 11 July 1963. 1A.

Reports on the injury of three policemen, a white cab driver, and a black youth, who were injured in a night of violent unrest during night demonstrations in Savannah. Also includes the use of tear gas bombs and fire hoses used on crowds.

---. “Rioting Negroes Stone Cars, Set Fires, Smash Windows.” Savannah Morning News 12 July 1963. 1A.

Several stories on this day run under large headline about property damage done during night marches that turned violent. Mentions how Gov. Carl Sanders put National Guard on alert, how 75 people were arrested, a suspected arson at Bible Baptist Church and the $30,000 bond set for demonstration leader Hosea Williams.

United Press International:

---. “Nine Virginia Nazis Join Bus Protest.” Savannah Morning News 11 September 1971: B1.

Describes the rejection of Nazis by Savannah residents who are unwilling to allow the racist group to join their anti-busing movement.

Associated Press:

“President to Announce Major Viet Proposal: To Address Nation on the War Tonight.” Savannah Morning News 7 October 1970: 1.

This article announced the evening address of President Nixon that detailed his plan for U.S. involvement in Indochina.

Web Sites:

"W. W. Law." This Far By Faith retrieved 2 February 2008.

An interactive Web site on the 2003 PBS series looking into how the black American religious experience informed cultural values and included a segment on W.W. Law, a Savannah activist who spoke out against the “night marches” led by Hosea Williams.

Stone, Janet D. “Armstrong Atlantic State University.” The New Georgia Encyclopedia retrieved 25 April 2007.

Elmore, Charles J. “Savannah State University.” The New Georgia Encyclopedia retrieved 25 April 2007.

“History of the University.” Armstrong Atlantic State University Official Website etrieved 22 April 2007.