Macon Bibliography


Herring, Jeanne. Macon, Georgia. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2000.

Iobst, Richard W. Civil War Macon: The History of a Confederate City. Macon: Mercer UP, 1999.

Manis, Andrew M. Macon Black and White: An Unutterable Separation in the American Century. Macon: Mercer UP, 2004.

This work explores the relations between black and white citizens in Macon from the mid-nineteenth century through the present day. By exploring the tensions between the two groups, the author offers a interesting look into the political, economic, and social stigmas placed on black citizens and the rise of the Civil Rights Movement.

Meeks, Catherine. Macon's Black Heritage: The Untold Story. Macon: The Tubman African American Museum, 1997.

Newspaper Articles:

United Press International

---. "Negroes End Bus Boycott in Macon." 3 March 1962.

The bus boycott in Macon came to a halt on Sunday, March 4, 1962. A bus boycott organized by the NAACP and Macon’s local leaders began February of 1962 as black residents fought against the bus company’s segregation policies. The bus company was forced to integrate its buses due to a ruling that required immediate integration.

---. "Racial Fight Erupts in Macon City Park." Savannah News 3 April 1963.

On Monday, April 1, 1963, a fight broke out as black youth attempted to integrate a segregated park. On Tuesday, April 2, 1963, a group of white citizens attacked blacks with sticks and rocks in Tattnall Square Park in Macon. Due to increased racial incidents at the local parks, the police closed the park under instructions from Mayor Ed Wilson.

Associated Press

---. "Macon Council Asked to Avert Negro Move." Atlanta Journal 29 July 1964.

With the passage of the Civil Rights Act, white residents of West Macon found segregation difficult to enforce. Residents of the Westwood Heights Apartments petitioned Mayor B.F. Merritt to prohibit blacks from moving into the segregated residence.

---. "Macon Judge Rules on Controversial Park." Augusta Chronicle 12 March 1964.

Judge Oscar J. Long accepted the resignation from the City of Macon as the trustee of Baconsfield Park. Senator A. O. Bacon’s will stipulated that the park remain segregated. The city was forced to relinquish its trustee status in order to comply with recent civil rights legislation.

Miscellaneous Newspaper Articles

---. Billy Watson, Don Floyd, Sherry Howard, et. al. "Heritage: A Portrait of Macon's Blacks." Macon Telegraph 18 February 1979.

This newspaper feature explores the lives and activities of black citizens in Macon. These reports offer information on housing, the black church, education, sports, and a host of other issues related to black life. This special report delves into the lives of Macon's black residents.

---. "Court Upholds Will for Segregated Park." Atlanta Times 30 September 1964.

Black residents of Macon contested the continued segregation of Baconsfield Park, which was willed to the city after the death of Senator A. O. Bacon. Mr. Bacon’s will stipulated that the park remain segregated for the white citizens of Macon. Local black citizens of Macon challenged the Georgia Supreme Court’s ruling to keep the park segregated because the ruling contradicted the discrimination policy of the 14th amendment.

---. "Macon Bus Case is Argued." Atlanta Journal 1 January 1962.

In Macon City Court, Solicitor Clarence H. Clay Jr. argued in favor of states rights when deliberating against city bus desegregation. In February of 1961, twelve blacks were arrested for attempting to integrate Macon's city buses. Attorney Donald Hollowell began a test case with the help of John Elijah Glover to challenge the city's states rights appeal, which challenged the Supreme Court's bus-segregation laws. Macon officials argued the city has the right to continue bus segregation as a means of police power.

---. Powledge, Fred. "Integration Ire Hits Macon again: Calm Police Work Prevents Disorder." Atlanta Journal 3 April 1963.

Describes a dispute that broke out between a group of white and black teenagers at the local park. Police officers arrived in time to avoid serious altercations between the two groups. This story helps to demonstrate the climate surrounding integration efforts in Macon.

---. "Racial Harmony seen here by Mayor, Businessmen." Macon Telegraph 3 July 1964.

With the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Bill, Macon officials comment on their willingness to comply with the new law. Mayor B. F. Merritt Jr. along with the police chief and local businesses pledged their efforts to implement the new law. Black community leaders urged citizens to remain calm and orderly as the new changes were implemented.

Web Sites:

Anderson,  Nancy Briska. "Macon." New Georgia Encyclopedia.3 October 2004 <>.

Each of the following links offers an in-depth look into incidents, people, and places of the Civil Rights Movement that occurred in Macon, Georgia . From major participants to monumental events, the New Georgia Encyclopedia offers a vast array of information for researching Macon.

“Macon.” <>.

“Bibb County.” <>.

“Museum of Arts and Sciences.” <>.

“Tubman African American Museum.” <>.

“Wesleyan College.” < <>.

“Mercer University.” <>.

“Macon State College.” <>.

Tubman African American Museum. "Tubman African American Museum." 2007. <>.

The Tubman African American Museum opened its doors in 1985. This museum works to preserve history and inform patrons about the contributions of African Americans in the South.


Black Cultural History in Macon, Georgia 1930 - 1970. Dir. Freeman, Denise. Prod. Jim Baker and George Espy III. VHS. WMAZ-TV, 1994.

This video explores the obstacles of education, housing, and employment that hindered African American life in Macon. By relying on interviews, the video expands the range of Civil Rights activities that occurred in Macon and the methods that secured the necessary changes for equality.